La colonna vertebrale e la postura

colonna vertebrale fitnesspro

La colonna vertebrale e la postura

La colonna vertebrale costituisce la parte scheletrica del rachide ed è costituita da un insieme di vertebre delimitate da un disco intervertebrale. Questa, forma un asse collegando la base del cranio con la base del tronco.

Teoricamente la colonna vertebrale è suddivisa in differenti regioni (o curvature), se viene mostrata sul piano laterale si nota la presenza, appunto, di 4 Curve.

Una prima nella zona del collo dove le 7 vertebre cervicali assumono una curvatura con convessità rivolta in avanti chiamata lordosi cervicale; scendendo si noterà una curvatura con convessità rivolta verso il dorso in corrispondenza delle 12 vertebre toraciche; ancora più sotto notiamo 5 vertebre lombari; in ultimo, una cifosi sacro-coccigeo in corrispondenza delle 5 vertebre sacrali e di quelle coccigee.

La postura è la posizione del corpo nello spazio e la relativa relazione tra i suoi segmenti corporei. Essa può definirsi come la deformazione coerente della gravità, cioè la posizione più idonea che il nostro corpo assume nello spazio per attuare le funzioni di deambulazione con il minor risparmio energetico sia in mobilità che in stazionamento.

Ad essa concorrono vari fattori: neurofisiologici, biomeccanici, emotivi, psicologici e relazionali. Si può dire quindi, che la postura di una persona è la conseguenza di abitudini e vita della persona stessa (ambiente in cui vive, stress, traumi fisici ed emotivi, posizioni scorrette e mantenute nel tempo, respirazione ed alimentazione scorretta, ecc.).

Essa è regolata da:

  • Sistema nervoso centrale e periferico;
  • Occhio;
  • Orecchio interno (equilibrio);
  • Piede;
  • Sistema cutaneo;
  • Articolazioni (compreso articolazione temporo-mandibolare).

Tra i nostri “sensori”, quello principale ovviamente è il sistema nervoso centrale il quale, dopo aver ricevuto informazioni da occhio, piede e cute in primo luogo per avere uno schema generale dell’esterno e del posizionamento del corpo, imposta il corpo stesso per procedere nel muoversi nella zona circostante.

Una cattiva postura, prima o poi tende a far degenerare il corpo il quale, ce ne dà conferma attraverso gli impulsi Propriocettori. Questi sono i FUSI NEUROMUSCOLARI, e i corpuscoli muscolo-tendinei del GOLGI.

Entrambi generano stimoli di impulsi nervosi di stiramento e variazioni nella posizione delle articolazioni. Sono importantissimi per la regolazione nervosa riflessa dell’atteggiamento posturale e della modulazione dell’attività motoria volontaria.

In parole povere, permettono di percepire l’immagine del proprio corpo e di avere la costruzione dello SCHEMA CORPOREO.

Detto questo, possiamo dedurre, che ogni disturbo della postura non è più limitabile al movimento meccanico, muscolare o articolare, ma anche a disturbi del sistema nervoso centrale e ad interazioni con il mondo esterno.

Quindi in palestra la correzione di tale fenomeno avviene partendo con un processo di apprendimento con connessione al S. N. C. con la consapevolezza di avere questi morfismi (o  paramorfismi), per poter poi agire sulla correzione soprattutto a livello muscolare.

Il corpo cercherà di compensarla agendo per l’appunto sul proprio schema corporeo fin quando ne avrà la possibilità (ad esempio spalla più alta, rotazioni del bacino, atteggiamento scoliotico, vizi di appoggio plantare, testa inclinata, ginocchia ricurvo, ecc.).

Quando poi in una seconda fase, le capacità compensatorie dell’organismo si interromperanno, compariranno le vere e proprie patologie (cefalee, cervicalgie, nevralgie, difetti di masticazione e dell’occlusione dentale, dolori a spalle, ginocchia, braccia anche, caviglie, ecc.).

In più, per causa di queste compensazioni, le fibre muscolari saranno stressate nel mantenere alterato l’equilibrio muscolare e le MIOFIBRILLE saranno sostituite dal tessuto connettivale che ridurrà il movimento articolare, limiterà l’ampiezza di movimento aumentando i processi infiammatori e artrosici.

CONTINUA…..

SANGUE E SUDORE

About the author

Talarico Domenico

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